A Surprise of the World in Peril


What’s pink within the morning, milky white within the night and golden underneath the moon? A couple of a long time in the past, this wouldn’t have been too onerous to guess for India-returned vacationers.

However the Taj Mahal lately finds itself embroiled in controversy, which takes off from an outdated idea of the Taj Mahal initially being a Hindu temple. The Taj Mahal was commissioned to be constructed by a Muslim emperor within the seventeenth century, so it underscores India’s polarization between Hindus and Muslims.

In Might, a petition was filed by one Rajneesh Singh, mentioned to be the “media in-charge” of the ruling Hindu nationalist celebration Bharatiya Janta Celebration’s Ayodhya unit, looking for an inquiry from a fact-finding panel into the “actual historical past” of the monument. The petitioner additionally urged the opening of the 22 sealed rooms, for the doable presence of idols of Hindu gods inside.

The Taj Mahal, one of many Seven Wonders of the World, is not only the Indian monument most visited by worldwide guests, additionally it is probably the most frequented attraction in terms of home vacationers. In 2019-2020, almost 4.5 million home vacationers and 650,000 worldwide vacationers visited the Taj.

However the divisive Hindu temple controversy that some see as combine of sturdy nationalism masked as patriotism is simply the most recent cloud for the Taj Mahal, elevating questions on its future. Insufficient infrastructure, air pollution, and rising apathy in the direction of the Taj Mahal, positioned in Agra, within the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, is taking the shine off the nation’s hottest vacationer attraction and some of the storied locations worldwide. How rapidly these points could be addressed has enormous implications for tourism throughout India.

A UNESCO World Heritage Web site since 1983, the income generated by the monument has gone up by virtually 400 % within the final 5 years. In 2018-2019 the Taj Mahal generated income price $11 million, whereas upkeep and conservation price round $700,000.

Already aware of the rising apathy in the direction of Agra, as soon as mentioned to be the tourism capital of India, this time across the tourism business isn’t amused. Journey brokers mentioned spiritual controversies similar to the most recent one would solely deter inbound vacationers, who’ve been trickling in, put up India’s reopening of borders in March after a two-year lull.

Controversies like this don’t create a conducive surroundings for tourism development within the nation, mentioned Rajiv Saxena, government director of Sanskriti Holidays India. “Agra has been out of favor with the incumbent state regime, whose focus is extra in the direction of spiritual tourism.”

The state authorities has as an alternative been selling Ayodhya and Varanasi extra aggressively in Uttar Pradesh these days.

Taj Mahal at evening

Behind the Newest Controversy

As a lot as Taj Mahal is symbolic of Indian tradition, the enduring monument has additionally been the hotbed of India’s cultural battle.

The Mughal-era monument, protected by the Archaeological Survey of India, has had a number of right-wing outfits claiming it to be Tajo Mahalaya — a Hindu temple previously. Proper-wing historian Purushottam Nagesh Oak in his guide “The Taj Mahal is a Hindu Palace” claimed that the monument was initially a Shiva temple constructed by a Rajput ruler.

Tellingly, the titles of Oak’s different works embrace “Delhi’s Pink Fort is Hindu Lalkot, “Lucknow’s Imambaras are Hindu Palaces,” and “The Agra Pink Fort was a Hindu Palace.”

Though Rajneesh Singh’s petition in Might this yr was quashed by the Allahabad Excessive Courtroom, right-wing activists aren’t satisfied. Singh had additionally sought permission to see paperwork associated to the sale of the Taj Mahal land by Rajput king Raja Jai Singh to Shah Jahan.

The Archaeological Survey of India had additionally launched footage of the cells, sustaining that there isn’t a secret and that these rooms comprise a number of Mughal-era mausoleums.

“Such sentiments are all the time round in India particularly because the nation prepares for the overall elections in 2024. In fact, with the Taj Mahal being an iconic monument the mileage that one can draw from will probably be greater,” mentioned Mahatim Singh, normal supervisor of Touraids (India) Journey Service.

Incomplete Initiatives Round Taj

Even initiatives referring to growth in and across the Taj Mahal have been delayed, added Saxena, who can be the vice-president of Tourism Guild of Agra. “The Taj Mahal Japanese Gate Parking lies incomplete,” Saxena mentioned, citing an instance. Closest to a number of the outstanding lodges in Agra metropolis, the East Gate is especially utilized by international guests.

Anticipated to have been accomplished a lot earlier than Covid, the Shivaji Museum, earlier often known as Taj Museum, additionally lies incomplete. “Apparently there’s no cash to finish it now,” Saxena mentioned.

“Furthermore, no new initiatives have been sanctioned in Agra when it comes to promotion and growth of tourism. It wouldn’t be an exaggeration to say that Taj Mahal drives the tourism to all the sub-continent.”

The journey group in Agra has been knocking on the doorways of each politician requesting them to construct tourism infrastructure in Agra, Touraids’ Singh mentioned. “With strain being constructed, I hope these initiatives shall be realised.”

Whereas acknowledging that Agra isn’t at present on the federal government’s precedence listing, Singh cautioned, “If you’d like folks to journey to India you can’t proceed the apathy in the direction of Taj Mahal at any price.”  

Even with little or no promotion being carried out by the federal government, vacationers are nonetheless eager to go to the Taj Mahal. “We have already got 10-12 charters coming in from the U.S. to Agra in September,” Singh mentioned.   

The Fading of Taj’s Colour and Glory

Constructed out of translucent white marble, sourced from the Makrana Mines of Jaipur in Rajasthan, adorned with delicate inlay work and carvings — the mesmerising monument is in the present day a pale shadow of its erstwhile regal glory.

An outdated tourism poster for India that includes Gandhi and the Taj Mahal from the early Forties. Supply: WikiMedia Commons.

The rising air air pollution ranges in Agra have tremendously affected the colour of the Taj. In response to a public curiosity litigation looking for to guard the Taj Mahal from environmental air pollution, India’s highest courtroom, the Supreme Courtroom, had in a 1996 ruling mandated the creation of a “secure” zone to guard the monument from air pollution.

The Taj Trapezium Zone is a delegated space of 10,400 sq km surrounding the Taj Mahal, round which the courtroom has banned the usage of coal/ coke by industries, with a mandate to modify to pure fuel, and relocate the vegetation or shut down.

This has had scant influence on the air pollution ranges within the metropolis typically as Agra ranked the thirty sixth most polluted metropolis on the planet in 2021.

In 2018, the Supreme Courtroom pulled up the Bharatiya Janta Celebration-led Indian authorities for not taking mandatory measures to protect and shield the Taj. “We don’t know whether or not you might have or maybe don’t have the experience. Even if in case you have the experience, you aren’t utilising it. Or maybe you don’t care,” the bench instructed the federal government.

“The Taj Mahal is on the banks of the river Yamuna and the river is drying. For the monument to outlive, it’s important that there’s water within the Yamuna. There have to be a purpose why the Yamuna was very a lot part of the planning when the Taj Mahal was being constructed,” mentioned Sanjay Sharma, president of the Tour Guides Federation of India.

“Whereas there have been talks of making a barrage or dam on the Yamuna just a little greater than a km away from the Taj Mahal, not a lot work has been carried out in the direction of this,” he added.

In 2021, findings from a paper titled, “Position of Air Pollutant for Deterioration of Taj Mahal by Figuring out Corrosion Merchandise on Floor of Metals,” said that the hydrogen sulphide from the polluted Yamuna River is chargeable for damaging the monument in additional methods than one.

To determine the doable results of the pollution, samples of zinc, copper and iron had been uncovered for 4 years on the premise of Taj Mahal, mentioned Achal Pandya, head of the conservation unit at Indira Gandhi Nationwide Middle for Arts, one of many 5 co-authors of the paper.

“We then studied the deposits on these metals with numerous strategies, together with Raman spectroscopy. The research revealed the formation of respective sulphides of the studied metals,” mentioned Pandya.

This commentary in addition to identification of corrosion merchandise fashioned on the metallic floor (robust peaks of copper sulphide) offered robust evidences that the hydrogen sulphide advanced from the polluted river accelerated the deterioration of the metallic.

The examine could be additional developed by putting these metallic samples at totally different heights within the Taj Mahal that stands at 73 meters to establish the extent to which the sulphide rises, added Pandya.

“There needs to be sufficient clear water flowing within the Yamuna,” he mentioned.

What About Overcrowding?

Earlier than Covid, clicking a photograph of the Taj Mahal with out hordes of vacationers coming into your body would have been an inconceivable feat. Overcrowding is certainly an issue on the Taj, which is visited by 35,000-40,000 guests every day, with numbers touching 70,000 on weekends, in response to the Archaeological Survey of India.

To counter this overcrowding, the federal government had prompt in 2019 that visits could be restricted to solely three hours, past which vacationers should pay extra charges equal to the price of the ticket. Additionally, home vacationers who earlier paid lower than $1 as entry charges must pay a further $2.50 to enter the mausoleum, whereas international vacationers pay $16 to safe entry into the mausoleum.

Taj Mahal can be infamous for its “tout tradition.” “The worst factor to occur to the Taj Mahal is that there are greater than 5,000 touts working as unauthorized guides in and round Agra. In comparison with that, town solely has 1,000 guides licensed by the ministry of tourism and the state authorities,” Sharma mentioned.

The variety of permitted guides reaching 1,000 has additionally been doable solely not too long ago, after the federal government added near 500 extra guides for home vacationers, he added. “The touts have certainly impacted Agra tourism negatively. They win the belief of unsuspecting vacationers and take them to over-priced outlets the place a fats fee is assured. And when the vacationers realise that they’ve been scammed, they depart scathing opinions of the vacation spot,” Sharma mentioned.

To get that good shot in between the crowds! Picture by Aishwarya Agarwal

A Monument of Inclusivity

Whereas there might not be a lot proof to ascertain claims that the Taj Mahal was allegedly a Hindu temple, the monument has all the time been an emblem of inclusivity and secularism.

Commissioned by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan to commemorate the dying of his second spouse Mumtaz Mahal, Taj Mahal incorporates and expands on many Hindu, Ottoman and Mughal design traditions.

It’s also one of many few monuments within the nation which are disabled-friendly, with a number of ramps to make the Taj Mahal campus accessible for wheelchair customers. The credit score for this goes to Stephen Hawking.

In 2001, when Hawking visited India, he had expressed his want to go to Taj Mahal, Humayun’s Tomb, Qutub Minar and some different well-known monuments. That is what led to those monuments turning wheelchair-friendly, whilst Hawking left with out visiting the Taj.

The Taj Mahal can be one of many only a few monuments within the nation accessible to visually impaired vacationers, who can learn the historical past of the monument by means of a discover board in Braille script, obtainable in each Hindi and English.

The discover board in Braille on the Taj Mahal

A Journey to India Incomplete With no Taj Go to

The Taj is to India what the Nice Wall is to China, Huge Ben is to London, and the Colosseum or Trevi Fountain is to Rome.

From Putin to Oprah, each international head of state or celeb visiting India has posed on the famed marble bench with the Taj Mahal within the background.

That is an iconic web site and we can’t do with out the Taj, mentioned Dipak Deva. managing director of Journey Company of India, India’s largest inbound journey firm.

“It’s on the must-do listing of each international vacationer who visits India for the primary time. Indian tourism depends on Taj Mahal and folks come to India as a result of they acknowledge this web site. Folks don’t care about faith and politics once they come to go to a spot like this,” Deva mentioned.

The Taj Mahal is among the most sought-after monuments on each traveler’s bucket listing. Virtually all Abercrombie & Kent friends visiting North India have Taj Mahal included within the itinerary, they usually go to the monument twice — at dawn and sundown, mentioned Vikram Madhok, managing director of Abercrombie & Kent India.

“Abercrombie & Kent USA not too long ago operated an unique 24-day tour around the world by personal jet and provided particular curated experiences. In India, our jet touched down in Agra and friends stayed for 2 nights at The Oberoi Amarvilas. The group visited the Taj Mahal twice,” he mentioned.    

Whereas Madhok acknowledges that there was no antagonistic influence on enterprise as a consequence of air pollution and infrastructural challenges at Taj Mahal and 2019 was, in truth, the most effective years of development, he mentioned there’s a rising concern concerning the influence as a consequence of air pollution and infrastructure.

Taj Mahal is not only a must-visit for worldwide guests; it’s equally essential for home tourism, mentioned Sunil Gupta, director of Journey Bureau, a four-decade-old journey firm primarily based in Agra.

“Taj Mahal being proven as a controversial monument when it comes to its origins is not going to go down properly with vacationers, particularly if it threatens their safety,” added Gupta.

Gupta cautioned that if the scenario isn’t subtle in time and is as an alternative inspired to collect momentum, it can have a damaging impact on tourism in India. “This might be devastating for the tourism business that has barely welcomed any international guests in 2020 and 2021,” he mentioned.

The Golden Triangle, a very talked-about circuit for international vacationers visiting India, contains a tour of Delhi, Agra and Jaipur. “Agra is an unbreakable hyperlink to the Golden Triangle,” mentioned Subhash Goyal, chairman of STIC Journey.

What’s Wanted for a Higher Expertise?

Although the reserving of entry tickets for the Taj Mahal is lastly doable on-line, tickets can’t be booked for a couple of week upfront.

“The tourism business has additionally been calling for mixed entry tickets whereby vacationers are allowed to go to a couple of protected monument by buying one entry ticket,” Goyal, who can be a member of the Nationwide Tourism Advisory Council of the ministry of tourism, mentioned.

As an alternative of being led by touts to outlets close by which find yourself fleecing vacationers, a memento store positioned on the exit of the Taj could be extra organized, Goyal famous, including, “A cafeteria within the Taj neighborhood the place folks may come and loosen up could be a good suggestion and would additionally assist to herald some income.”

In some ways, the recognition of the Taj serves as a double-edged sword as challenges like overcrowding, air pollution and visitors are a results of hundreds of thousands touring to town of Agra to see what the famed monument is all about.

Higher facilities and services in and across the Taj would go a great distance in preserving the monument and guaranteeing livelihood choices for these dwelling round.

“The town of Agra rose to prominence because of the Taj Mahal. The monument can be the rationale that Uttar Pradesh has discovered a spot within the world tourism map. The Taj Mahal is right here to remain. It’s India’s pleasure,” Goyal mentioned.

Maybe that explains why, of the 31,000 opinions on TripAdvisor, greater than 26,000 have nonetheless rated the monument ‘Wonderful’. 

Abercrombie & Kent USA has seen a rise in demand over the previous month, significantly for journey in quarter 4 of this yr, on its Taj Mahal & the Treasures of India small group journey. “There are a number of departures now near being offered out and I’m optimistic this development will proceed as we see friends guide journey nearer in,” mentioned Jennifer Campbell, Abercrombie & Kent USA product supervisor, Asia.

Many a poet’s muse, an architectural marvel, a vacationer’s delight — this monument with a fragile sentiment at its coronary heart, is many issues to many individuals. However one factor it can all the time be is synonymous with India. A lot rides on the large potential of the Taj Mahal not being allowed to dry up just like the river that flows by it.



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