Information Evaluation (09 Sep, 2022)

For Prelims: Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Kartavya Path, Central Vista.

For Mains: Kartavya Path and its Significance, Historical past of Rajpath.

Why in Information?

The Prime Minister inaugurated the ‘Kartavya Path’ and unveiled the statue of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose at India Gate.

What are Key Inaugurations?

  • Kartavya Path symbolizes a shift from erstwhile Rajpath being an icon of energy to Kartavya Path being an instance of public possession and empowerment.
  • The statue of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose manufactured from granite, is a becoming tribute to the immense contribution of Netaji to our freedom battle, and could be a image of the nation’s indebtedness to him.

    • Crafted by Shri Arun Yogiraj, who was the primary sculptor, the 28 toes tall statue has been carved from a monolithic granite stone and weighs 65 MT.

  • These steps are according to Prime Minister’s second ‘Panch Pran’ pledged throughout seventy fifth Independence Day 2022, for New India in Amrit Kaal: ‘take away any hint of colonial mindset’.

What’s the Want for Revamping Rajpath?

  • Over time, Rajpath and adjoining areas of the Central Vista Avenue had been witnessing strain of accelerating visitors of holiday makers, placing stress on its infrastructure.

    • Central Vista Avenue is a part of the federal government’s formidable Central Vista redevelopment mission.

  • It lacked fundamental facilities like public bogs, ingesting water, road furnishings and ample parking area.
  • Additional, there was insufficient signage, poor upkeep of water options and haphazard parking.
  • Additionally, a necessity was felt to organise the Republic Day parade and different Nationwide occasions in a much less disruptive method with minimal restrictions on public motion.
  • The redevelopment has been accomplished bearing these issues in thoughts whereas additionally making certain the integrity and continuity of architectural character.

What’s the Temporary Historical past of Rajpath?

  • Known as Kingsway throughout British rule, the three-km stretch was constructed as a ceremonial boulevard by Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker, the architects of New Delhi, greater than 100 years in the past.
  • The capital of the Raj moved to New Delhi from Calcutta in 1911, and development continued for a number of years thereafter.
  • Lutyens conceptualised the trendy imperial metropolis centred round a “ceremonial axis”, which was named Kingsway in honour of the then Emperor of India, George V, who visited Delhi in the course of the Durbar of 1911, the place he formally proclaimed the resolution to maneuver the capital.

    • The nomenclature adopted that of the Kingsway in London, an arterial highway inbuilt 1905, which was named in honour of King Edward VII, the daddy of George V.

  • Following Independence in 1947, the highway was given its Hindi title, Rajpath, on which the Republic Day parades occurred over the a long time that adopted.

What’s the Kartavya Path and its Significance?

  • The complete stretch and the realm from the Netaji statue underneath the Grand Cover to the Rashtrapati Bhavan will likely be generally known as Kartavya Path.
  • Kartavya Path consists of the erstwhile “Rajpath and Central Vista lawns”.
  • Kartavya Path will exhibit landscapes, lawns with walkways, added inexperienced areas, refurbished canals, amenity blocks, improved signages and merchandising kiosks.
  • It additionally consists of a lot of sustainability options like stable waste administration, storm-water administration, recycling of used water, rainwater harvesting, water conservation and power environment friendly lighting methods, amongst others.
  • The revamped and expanded lawns on either side of the erstwhile Rajpath are a part of the bigger Central Vista mission, the place a brand new triangular Parliament constructing, together with the Central Secretariat and a number of other different authorities workplaces, are being rebuilt.

What are the Key Factors Associated to Subhash Chandra Bose?

  • Delivery:

    • Subhas Chandra Bose was born on twenty third January 1897, in Cuttack, Orissa Division, Bengal Province, to Prabhavati Dutt Bose and Janakinath Bose.

  • Schooling and Early Life:

    • In 1919, he had cleared the Indian Civil Providers (ICS) examination. Bose, nonetheless, resigned later.
    • He was extremely influenced by Vivekananda’s teachings and regarded him as his non secular Guru.
    • His political mentor was Chittaranjan Das.

      • He labored because the editor for Das’s newspaper–Ahead, and later began his personal newspaper, Swaraj.

  • Affiliation with Congress:

    • He stood for unqualified swaraj (independence), and opposed the Motilal Nehru Report which spoke for dominion standing for India.
    • He actively participated within the Salt Satyagraha of 1930 and vehemently opposed the suspension of the Civil Disobedience Motion and signing of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact in 1931.
    • Within the Nineteen Thirties, he was intently related to left politics in Congress together with Jawaharlal Nehru and M.N. Roy.
    • Bose gained the congress presidential elections at Haripura in 1938.
    • Once more in 1939 at Tripuri, he gained the presidential elections towards Gandhi’s candidate Pattabhi Sitarammayya. Because of ideological variations with Gandhi, Bose resigned and left congress. Rajendra Prasad was appointed in his place.
    • He based a brand new get together, ‘the Ahead Bloc’. The aim was to consolidate the political left and main help base in his house state Bengal.

  • Indian Nationwide Military:

    • He reached Japanese-controlled Singapore from Germany in July 1943, issued from there his well-known name, ‘Delhi Chalo’, and introduced the formation of the Azad Hind Authorities and the Indian Nationwide Military on twenty first October 1943.
    • The INA was first fashioned underneath Mohan Singh and Japanese Main Iwaichi Fujiwara and comprised Indian prisoners of struggle of the British-Indian Military captured by Japan within the Malayan (present-day Malaysia) marketing campaign and at Singapore.
    • The INA included each the Indian prisoners of struggle from Singapore and Indian civilians in South-East Asia. It is power grew to 50,000.
    • The INA fought allied forces in 1944 contained in the borders of India in Imphal and in Burma.
    • In November 1945, a British transfer to place the INA males on trial instantly sparked huge demonstrations all around the nation.

  • Demise:

    • He’s mentioned to have died in 1945 when his airplane crashed in Taiwan. Nevertheless, there are nonetheless many conspiracy theories concerning his dying.

UPSC Civil Providers Examination, Earlier Yr Questions (PYQs)


Q. Throughout the Indian Freedom Wrestle, who of the next raised a military referred to as ‘Free Indian Legion’? (2008)

(a) Lala Hardayal
(b) Rashbehari Bose
(c) Subhas Chandra Bose
(d) V.D. Savarkar

Ans: (c)


  • The Free Indian Legion was an infantry regiment fashioned by Indian volunteers. The legion was made up of Indian prisoners of wars and expatriates in Europe.
  • The Indian Independence chief, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose fashioned this legion with the assistance of German Authorities to combat towards the British. The legion is also called “Tiger Legion“.
  • Due to this fact, possibility (c) is the proper reply.


Q. In what methods did the naval mutiny show to be the final nail within the coffin of British colonial aspirations in India? (2014)

Supply: TOI

For Prelims: Artwork and Craftmanship in Chola Period, Cholas Sculpture.

For Mains: Chola Dynasty.

Why in Information?

The Tamil Nadu Idol Wing CID has initiated steps to retrieve six Chola-era bronze idols, stolen from the Nareeswara Sivan temple, Tamil Nadu again within the Nineteen Sixties, and at the moment saved at varied museums in the USA.

  • The idols had been efficiently traced to the US lately with the assistance of the photographs accessible with the Indo-French Institute, Pondicherry, which had documented 9 bronze sculptures in 1956. Of them, seven had been stolen 5 a long time in the past.
  • The institute had offered photos of vintage Panchaloha idols of Tripuranthakam, Thirupurasundari, Nataraja, Dakshinamurthy Veenadhara, and Saint Sundarar along with his spouse Paravai Natchiyaar.

How was the Medieval Chola Dynasty?

  • About:

    • The Cholas (8th-12th century AD) are remembered as one of many longest ruling dynasties within the southern areas of India.
    • The reign of the Cholas started within the 9th century once they defeated the Pallavas to come back into energy. This rule stretched over for over 5 lengthy centuries till the 13th century.
    • The medieval interval was the period of absolute energy and growth for the Cholas. That is when kings like Aditya I and Parantaka I.
    • From right here Rajaraj Chola and Rajendra Chola additional expanded the dominion into the Tamil area. Later Kulothunga Chola took over Kalinga to ascertain a powerful rule.
    • This magnificence lasted till the arrival of the Pandyas within the early thirteenth century.

  • Outstanding Monarchs:

    • Vijayalaya: The Chola Empire was based by Vijayalaya. He took over the Tanjore kingdom within the 8th century and led to the rise of the mighty Cholas by defeating the Pallavas.
    • Aditya I: Aditya I succeeded Vijayalaya to grow to be the ruler of the empire. He defeated king Aparajita and the empire gained huge energy underneath his reign. He conquered the Pandya Kings together with the Vadumbas and established management over the Pallavas’ energy within the area.
    • Rajendra Chola: He succeeded the mighty Rajaraja Chola. Rajendra I used to be the primary to enterprise to the banks of Ganges. He was popularly referred to as the Victor of the Ganges. This era is known as the golden age of the Cholas. After his rule, the dominion witnessed a widespread downfall.

  • Administration And Governance:

    • Throughout the governance by the Cholas, the complete southern area was introduced underneath the umbrella of a single governing drive. The Cholas dominated in a sustained Monarchy.
    • The large kingdom was divided into provinces which had been generally known as mandalams.
    • Separate governors had been held in cost for every mandalam.
    • These had been additional divided into districts referred to as nadus which consisted of tehsils.
    • The system of rule was such that every village acted as a self-governing unit in the course of the period of the Cholas. The Cholas had been ardent patrons of artwork, poetry, literature and drama, the administration was seen investing within the development of a number of temples and complexes with sculptures and work.
    • The king remained the central authority who would make the key choices and perform the governance.

  • Structure:

    • Chola structure (871-1173 AD) was the epitome of the Dravida type of temple structure.
    • They produced a number of the most grandeur temples in medieval India.
    • Chola temples like Brihadeshwara temple, Rajarajeshwara temple, Gangaikonda Cholapuram temple took Dravidian structure to newer heights. Temple structure continued to flourish even after Cholas.

What are the Key Factors of Cholas Sculpture?

  • An necessary piece of Chola sculpture was the sculpture of Nataraja within the Tandava dance posture.

    • Although the earliest recognized Nataraja sculpture, which has been excavated at Ravana phadi cave at Aihole, was made in the course of the early Chalukya rule, the sculpture reached its peak underneath the Cholas.

  • The later section of Chola artwork, within the 13th century, is illustrated by the sculpture exhibiting Bhudevi, or the earth goddess because the youthful consort of Vishnu. She stands in a gracefully flexed angle on a lotus base holding a lily in her proper hand, whereas the left arm hangs alongside her facet.
  • Chola bronze photos are thought of amongst the best on the earth.

UPSC Civil Providers Examination, Earlier Yr Questions (PYQs)


Q. Contemplate the next occasions within the historical past of India: (2020)

  1. Rise of Pratiharas underneath King Bhoja
  2. Institution of Pallava energy underneath Mahendravarman-I
  3. Institution of Chola energy by Parantaka-I
  4. Pala dynasty based by Gopala

What’s the appropriate chronological order of the above occasions, ranging from the earliest time?

(a) 2 – 1 – 4 – 3
(b) 3 – 1 – 4 – 2
(c) 2 – 4 – 1 – 3
(d) 3 – 4 – 1 – 2

Ans: (c)


  • The Pallava dynasty existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India. Pallavas turned a significant energy in the course of the reign of Mahendravarman I (571–630 CE) who dominated the Southern portion of current day Andhra area and Northern areas of what varieties present-day Tamil Nadu.
  • Pala dynasty reigned in Bihar and Bengal from the 8th to the 12th century. Its founder, Gopala (750-770 CE), was an area chieftain who rose to energy within the mid-eighth century throughout a interval of anarchy.
  • From the center of the eighth century the dominance over Madhyadesha turned the ambition of two specific clans amongst tribal individuals in Rajasthan, generally known as the Gurjara and the Pratihara. In response to a recent Arab account from 851 CE, Raja Mihir Bhoja (840–851 CE), the best of the Pratiharakings, was among the many princes of India that battled towards the Arab invaders.
  • The Chola Empire was based by Vijayalaya. The reign of the Cholas started within the 9th century once they defeated the Pallavas to come back into energy. The medieval interval was the period of absolute energy and growth for the Cholas. Parantaka I (reigned 907–953) laid the muse of the dominion. He took the northern boundary as much as Nellore (Andhra Pradesh), the place his advance was stopped by a defeat by the hands of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III. Parantaka was extra profitable within the south, the place he defeated each the Pandyas and the Ganga


Q. Chola structure represents a excessive watermark within the evolution of temple structure. Focus on. (2013)

Supply: IE

For Prelims: Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting International locations (OPEC+) plus, RBI, Inflation, Fiscal Deficit.

For Mains: Slide in Oil Costs and its impression on India.

Why in Information?

Brent crude costs have fallen sharply during the last ten days, the costs have declined to underneath USD 90 per barrel.

  • Whereas they had been buying and selling at round $110 per barrel in July,2022.

What led to the Fall in World Crude Oil Costs?

  • The crude costs fell sharply by round 4% and the decline has come regardless of Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting International locations (OPEC+) plus announcement to chop provide by 100,000 barrels per day starting October, 2022 in a bid to prop up the costs.
  • Whereas the costs have been softening during the last couple of months, the current sharp decline is as a result of renewed fears of recession in Europe and decline in demand from China, which introduced in new Covid lockdown measures amid weakening manufacturing unit exercise.
  • There’s a concern that these elements may dent the long run demand of crude oil.
  • Market contributors say OPEC’s resolution to chop manufacturing is in itself a sign that it expects a decline in demand and additional softening in costs.

How would World Crude Oil Value Influence India?

  • Influence of Rise in World Oil Value:

    • India imports almost 85% of its crude requirement and within the yr ended March 2022, the oil import invoice doubled to USD 119 billion on account of rise in costs.
    • The rise in import invoice not solely results in inflation and rise in present account deficit and monetary deficit, but additionally weakens the rupee towards the greenback and hurts inventory market sentiment.
    • An increase in crude oil worth additionally has an oblique impression on India because it results in an increase in edible oil costs, coal costs and in addition that of fertilizers as they use fuel as feedstock. Gasoline accounts for 80% of all fertilizer manufacturing prices.
    • So, if an increase in crude oil costs may result in a much-enhanced import burden, it additionally results in discount in demand within the financial system which hurts progress.
    • It may additionally result in larger fiscal deficit if the federal government chooses to bear the burden by means of subsidies.

  • Influence of Fall in World Value:

    • A softening in crude oil costs is an enormous reduction for all stakeholders – the authorities, the customers and even the corporates.
    • If oil continues to commerce at decrease ranges, it’s going to end in decrease inflation ranges, larger disposable incomes and thereby larger financial progress.
    • If on the one hand it’s a reflection of expectations of slowdown in world progress which can have its bearing on India’s progress too, on the opposite it comes as an enormous respite for India.
    • Softening crude oil worth has additionally performed a job within the index rise on fairness and debt markets as corporations throughout sectors are delicate to crude oil costs.

UPSC Civil Providers Examination Earlier Yr Query (PYQ)


Q. The time period ‘West Texas Intermediate’, typically present in information, refers to a grade of (2020)

(a) Crude oil
(b) Bullion
(c) Uncommon earth parts
(d) Uranium

Ans: (a)

  • West Texas intermediate (WTI), also called Texas gentle candy, is a grade of crude oil used as a benchmark in oil pricing.
  • WTI is described as gentle crude oil due to its comparatively low density, and candy due to its low sulfur content material.
  • It’s sourced from US oil fields, primarily in Texas, Louisiana, and North Dakota.
  • Due to this fact, possibility (a) is the proper.


Q. Petroleum refineries usually are not essentially positioned nearer to crude oil producing areas, notably in lots of the growing nations. Clarify its implications. (2017)

Supply: IE

For Prelims: Quantum Computing, Qiskit Problem, quantum computing laboratory, Nationwide Mission on quantum applied sciences and functions, Centre for Improvement of Telematics (C-DOT), I-HUB Quantum Know-how Basis, Centre for Improvement of Superior Computing (C-DAC), Nationwide Mission on quantum applied sciences and functions.

For Mains: Significance of Quantum Computing.

Why in Information?

In response to a research by IBM, India is witnessing a rising curiosity in quantum computing, with college students, builders, and academia actively collaborating. Consequently, the nation is rising as a expertise hub for quantum computing.

What’s Quantum Computing?

  • About:

    • Quantum computing is a rapidly-emerging know-how that harnesses the legal guidelines of quantum mechanics to resolve issues too advanced for classical computer systems.

      • Quantum mechanics is a subfield of physics that describes the conduct of particles — atoms, electrons, photons, and virtually every little thing within the molecular and submolecular realm.

    • It’s an thrilling new know-how that may form our world tomorrow by offering us with an edge and a myriad of prospects.
    • It’s a basically totally different manner of processing data in comparison with at the moment’s classical computing methods.

  • Options:

    • Completely different from Conventional Computer systems:

      • Whereas at the moment’s classical computer systems retailer data as binary 0 and 1 states, quantum computer systems draw on the basic legal guidelines of nature to perform calculations utilizing quantum bits.
      • Not like a bit that needs to be a 0 or a 1, a qubit could be in a mix of states, which permits for exponentially bigger calculations and offers them the potential to resolve advanced issues which even probably the most highly effective classical supercomputers usually are not able to.

  • Significance:

    • Quantum computer systems can faucet into the quantum mechanical phenomenon to manipulate data and are anticipated to make clear processes of molecular and chemical interactions, handle tough optimization issues, and increase the ability of synthetic intelligence.
    • These may open the door to new scientific discoveries, life-saving medication, and enhancements in provide chains, logistics and the modelling of monetary information.

What are IBM India’s Initiatives round Quantum Computing?

  • Qiskit Problem: Qiskit is an open-source software program growth equipment constructed by IBM for the quantum developer neighborhood.
  • Qiskit India Week of Quantum: IBM recurrently organizes India-focused programmes similar to Qiskit India Week of Quantum, which celebrated ladies in quantum to kickstart their journeys in quantum, and was attended by virtually 300 college students.
  • The Qiskit Textbook: Qiskit textbook is offered in Tamil, Bengali and Hindi and was accessed greater than 30,000 instances by college students in India in 2021 alone.
  • IBM Quantum Educators Programme: IBM is collaborating with main instructional establishments in India by means of the IBM Quantum Educators Programme.

    • The college and college students of those establishments will be capable to entry IBM Quantum methods, quantum studying sources and quantum instruments over IBM Cloud for instructional functions.

What are the Key Initiatives taken by the Indian Authorities?

  • Nationwide Mission on quantum applied sciences and functions: The Authorities in its 2021 finances allotted INR 8000 Crore in direction of the Nationwide Mission on quantum applied sciences and functions to spur developments in quantum computing, cryptography, communications, and materials science.
  • Quantum Computing Laboratory: In December 2021, the Indian Military arrange a quantum computing laboratory and an AI centre at a navy engineering institute at Mhow, Madhya Pradesh. Additionally it is backed by the Nationwide Safety Council Secretariat (NSCS).
  • Quantum Communication Lab: The Centre for Improvement of Telematics (C-DOT) launched a quantum communication lab in October 2021. It could actually help greater than 100 km of ordinary optical fibre.
  • Collaborations: The Defence Institute of Superior Know-how (DIAT) and the Centre for Improvement of Superior Computing (C-DAC) agreed to collaborate and develop quantum computer systems.
  • I-HUB Quantum Know-how Basis: The Division of Science and Know-how and about 13 analysis teams from IISER Pune launched I-HUB Quantum Know-how Basis (I-HUB QTF) to additional improve the event of quantum tech.
  • Startups: Various Begin-Ups similar to Qunu Labs, Bangalore; BosonQ, Bhilai have additionally emerged and because of this, they’re making inroads on this space.

Means Ahead

  • Much like the fast-growing Synthetic Intelligence market, quantum computing, as one other know-how, has created a wave among the many nations and firms globally to get right into a race and purchase a management place.
  • The necessity of the hour, subsequently, is concurrently to construct ample quantum computational capability, develop expertise in constructing and operationalizing a sensible dimension and reasonably priced value quantum pc, proceed analysis into realizing the varied sensible functions, and introduce contents into the tutorial programs at undergrad and post-grad ranges to develop quantum science and engineering as a self-discipline on the college stage that may produce a lot of science and know-how heads.

UPSC Civil Providers Examination Earlier Yr Query (PYQ)


Q. Which one of many following is the context through which the time period “qubit” is talked about?

(a) Cloud Providers
(b) Quantum Computing
(c) Seen Gentle Communication Applied sciences
(d) Wi-fi Communication Applied sciences

Ans: (b)


  • Quantum Supremacy

    • Quantum computer systems compute in ‘qubits’ (or quantum bits). They exploit the properties of quantum mechanics, the science that governs how matter behaves on the atomic scale.

  • Therefore, possibility (b) is appropriate.


Q. “The emergence of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Digital Revolution) has initiated e-Governance as an integral a part of authorities”. Focus on. (2020)

Supply: TH

For Prelims: India-China Standoff, Pangong Tso Lake, Line of Precise Management, Sizzling Springs and Gogra Submit, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), India-China Army Talks, Aksai Chin.

For Mains: India-China stand-off and disengagement.

Why in Information?

Not too long ago, the Indian and Chinese language troops have begun disengaging at Patrolling Pillar-15 (PP-15) within the Gogra-Hotspring area of Jap Ladakh.

Why are the Key Highlights concerning the Present Disengagement?

  • Indian and Chinese language armies have begun to disengage from Patrolling Level-15 within the Gogra-Hotsprings space of Jap Ladakh, marking a step ahead to finish the standoff ongoing since Could 2020.
  • The disengagement has begun in a coordinated and deliberate manner, which is conducive to peace and tranquility within the border areas.
  • As per the understanding reached earlier on disengagement, a buffer zone is to be created on the friction factors as soon as troops are withdrawn by either side and new patrolling norms are to be labored out after full disengagement and de-escalation.
  • The consensus concerning the disengagement was reached within the 16th spherical of India China Corps Commander Stage Assembly.

    • The 16th spherical of talks was held on July 17, 2022, on the Chushul border personnel assembly level on the Indian facet.
    • Because the stand-off started in Could 2020, the 2 sides have up to now held 16 rounds of talks with disengagement undertaken from either side of Pangong Tso.

  • With disengagement at PP-15, forces of the two nations have disengaged in any respect friction factors within the area which included the North and South banks of the Pangong Tso, PP-14, PP-15 and PP-17A.

    • The final disengagement between the forces of the 2 nations had been achieved at PP-17 A in August 2021 following the 12th Corp Commander Stage assembly.

  • The friction factors that stay now are Demchok and Depsang, which China has always refused to simply accept, sustaining that they aren’t part of the present stand-off.

What We Must Know concerning the Sizzling Springs and Gogra Submit?

  • Location:

    • Sizzling Springs is simply north of the Chang Chenmo river and Gogra Submit is east of the purpose the place the river takes a hairpin bend coming southeast from Galwan Valley and turning southwest.
    • The space is north of the Karakoram Vary of mountains, which lies north of the Pangong Tso lake, and south east of Galwan Valley.

  • Significance:

    • The realm lies near Kongka Cross, one of many most important passes, which, in response to China, marks the boundary between India and China.
    • India’s declare of the worldwide boundary lies considerably east, because it consists of your complete Aksai Chin space as properly.
    • Sizzling Springs and Gogra Submit are near the boundary between two of probably the most traditionally disturbed provinces (Xinjiang and Tibet) of China.

What needs to be the Means Ahead?

  • India should proceed to press for full disengagement and de-escalation from all friction areas.
  • Additionally, the Corps Commander stage talks needs to be continued as the connection can’t return to regular so long as the state of affairs alongside the standoff continues.
  • India ought to maintain its stand agency over the restoration of the established order and restoration alongside the LAC.

What’s China’s totally solar-powered, semi-satellite drone?

  • About:

    • China’s first totally solar-powered Unmanned Aerial Car (UAV) has efficiently accomplished its maiden take a look at flight with all onboard methods functioning optimally.
    • The drone is a big machine powered solely by photo voltaic panels with a wingspan of 164-ft.
    • Named the Qimingxing-50, or Morning Star-50, this drone flies above 20-km altitude the place there’s steady airflow with no clouds.

      • The Excessive-Altitude, Lengthy-Endurance (HALE) UAV can keep airborne for lengthy durations.
      • This helps these drones to make the most use of photo voltaic gear to remain practical for prolonged durations.

    • This drone can also be known as ‘Excessive Altitude Platform Stations’ or pseudo-satellites.

  • Significance:

    • It could actually function and not using a break for months, even years.
    • It’s able to finishing up satellite-like features.

      • If satellite tv for pc companies usually are not accessible for, say, time-sensitive operations or in case of wartime disruption, then near-space UAVs can step in to fill the operational hole.
      • Morning Star-50’s long-endurance gives an added benefit to make this functionality accessible over an extended interval.

    • It could actually undertake surveillance missions that require it to remain operational, watching over borders or oceans, for months.
    • It may be used for monitoring forest fires, offering communication and surroundings relay.

UPSC Civil Providers Examination Earlier Yr Query (PYQ)

Q. “China is utilizing its financial relations and constructive commerce surplus as instruments to develop potential navy energy standing in Asia”. Within the gentle of this assertion, talk about its impression on India as her neighbour. (2017)

Supply: TH

For Prelims: Crimson-Eared Slider Turtles & its presence in India

For Mains: Distinct Options of Crimson-Eared Slider Turtles, Impact of Invasive Species on Surroundings

Why in Information?

Not too long ago, consultants have expressed the priority that the presence of invasive and non-native south Crimson-Eared Slider Turtles would result in the extinction of native species of their very own form.

  • India is house to 29 freshwater turtles and tortoise species of the 356 turtle species recognised worldwide and round 80percentof them are threatened.

What do we have to know concerning the Crimson-Eared Slider Turtle?

  • About:

    • The red-eared slider is primarily aquatic and can emerge from the water for basking on rocks and logs.

      • When basking, red-eared sliders generally pile on prime of one another, and when startled by the sound or sight of a possible predator, they’ll slide off their basking spot again into the water, therefore their title, “slider.”

    • Crimson-eared slider turtles are labeled as managed pest animals underneath the Victorian Catchment and Land Safety Act 1994.

  • Scientific Title: Trachemys scripta elegans
  • Habitat: They’ll tolerate a variety of habitats and are typically present in estuaries and coastal wetlands with brackish water.

    • They’ll additionally tolerate a variety of water high quality and settle for excessive ranges of natural pollution similar to effluent and inorganic pollution.

  • Geography: The red-eared slider is native to South-Jap USA and Mexico.
  • Safety Standing:
  • Distinctive Options:

    • They’ve a broad pink or orange stripe behind every eye with slim yellow stripes marking the remainder of the black physique, neck, legs and tail.
    • They’ve distinctive lengthy claws on their entrance and hind legs the place claws are longer and extra distinguished in males than females.
    • They retract their head straight again into their shell when threatened. Native turtles tuck their neck to 1 facet beneath the shell.

Why is the Turtle’s Presence in India a Concern?

  • Favorable Pet: In India, preserving indigenous turtles as pets is prohibited underneath the Wildlife Safety Act.

    • However the international breeds usually are not restricted and are saved as pets in lots of households throughout India.
    • They’re small and easy-to-maintain species and subsequently a success within the pet market.
    • The species breeds sooner in comparison with different native turtle varieties. As their dimension will increase, they not slot in small tanks or ponds.

      • The homeowners launch them within the wild or close by waterbodies and as soon as launched, they grow to be a menace to the native fauna.

  • Presence in India: In India, these turtles are primarily present in city wetlands similar to Sukhna lake in Chandigarh, temple ponds of Guwahati, lakes of Bengaluru, Sanjay Gandhi nationwide park in Mumbai, Yamuna River in Delhi, and so on.
  • Impact on Native Species:

    • As they mature quick, develop bigger, and produce extra offspring, and are very aggressive, they’ll out-compete native turtles for meals, nestling, and basking websites.
    • They eat vegetation and animals and might end off a variety of aquatic species, together with fish and uncommon frogs.
    • They’ll additionally switch illnesses and parasites to native reptile species.
    • The species is taken into account as one of many world’s 100 worst invasive non-native species.

What could be accomplished to Management the Invasion?

  • There needs to be extra guidelines to stop the species from coming into the Indian surroundings and negatively impacting it.
  • Handbook intervention is required to acquire and rehabilitate these turtles from city wetlands.

    • A marketing campaign to declare or surrender turtles needs to be held to take these turtles in custody.

  • These turtles needs to be restrained, captivated and despatched to native zoos.

What are some Worldwide Programmes on Invasive Species?

  • Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (2000): The Protocol seeks to defend organic range from the potential dangers posed by Living Modified Organisms ensuing from fashionable biotechnology.
  • Conference on Organic Range (CBD): It was one of many key agreements adopted on the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro.

    • Article 8 (h) of the Conference calls on Events to stop the introduction of, management or eradicate these alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species.

  • Conference on the Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS) or Bonn Conference (1979): It’s an intergovernmental treaty that goals to preserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species all through their vary.

    • It additionally goals to regulate or to get rid of already current invasive alien species.

  • Conference on Worldwide Commerce in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): It additionally considers the issues of invasive species when they’re concerned in commerce and threatens the survival of dwelling animals or vegetation.
  • Ramsar Conference (1971): The Ramsar Conference on Wetlands of Worldwide Significance additionally addresses the environmental, financial and social impression of invasive species on wetlands inside their jurisdictions and to take account of the strategies of management and options for combating invasive species.

UPSC Civil Providers Examination, Earlier Yr Questions (PYQs)

Q. Contemplate the next statements: (2019)

  1. Some species of turtles are herbivores.
  2. Some species of fish are herbivores.
  3. Some species of marine mammals are herbivores.
  4. Some species of snakes are viviparous.

Which of the statements given above are appropriate?

(a) 1 and three solely
(b) 2, 3 and 4 solely
(c) 2 and 4 solely
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans: (d)


  • Inexperienced sea turtles are tailored to largely vegetarian weight loss plan of sea grasses and algae. As adults, these are the one predominantly herbivorous sea turtles, though they’re carnivorous from hatching till juvenile dimension. Therefore, assertion 1 is appropriate.
  • Surgeonfish and parrotfish are two species of fish typically seen feeding on reef algae. Therefore, assertion 2 is appropriate.
  • Manatees, typically referred to as sea cows, are massive mammals that stay within the heat sea waters. They livein shallow coastal areas and feed on sea vegetation. Therefore, assertion 3 is appropriate.
  • Snakes which are viviparous nourish their younger ones by means of a placenta and yolk sac. Boa constrictors and inexperienced anacondas are two examples of viviparous snakes. Therefore, assertion 4 is appropriate.
  • Due to this fact, possibility (d) is the proper reply.

Supply: DTE

For Prelims: Rural Livelihoods Promotion Programme, JEEViKA, Bihar Prohibition and Excise Act, 2016.

For mains: Bihar’s Liquor Prohibition and Associated Points.

Why in Information?

Bihar is getting ready to make glass bangles out of seized liquor bottles, by means of its Rural Livelihoods Promotion Programme, generally known as JEEViKA.

  • These bottles will likely be given to JEEViKA employees who’ve been educated in bangle-making. The programme will arrange a manufacturing unit for this.
  • Funded by the World Financial institution, JEEViKA is a rural social and financial empowerment programme that comes underneath Bihar’s rural growth division.

What’s the Financial Viability of the Transfer?

  • Some are apprehensive concerning the financial viability of the federal government’s new “revolutionary” concept of constructing glass bangles out of seized liquor bottles.
  • It could sound like an revolutionary concept however in making glass bangles different supplies too are used like limestone and soda.
  • There are a number of small and large established factories in locations like Faizabad, Mumbai and Hyderabad which represent about 80% of glass bangle-making merchandise.
  • The seized unlawful liquor bottles is not going to be sufficient to maintain a glass bangle-making manufacturing unit’s financial viability.

What are Bihar’s Liquor Prohibition and Associated Points?

  • About:

    • Launched on 5 April 2016, the Bihar Prohibition and Excise Act, 2016, imposed a complete ban on alcohol within the state.
    • In March 2022, the Bihar meeting handed a Invoice amending the prohibition Act.
    • Known as the Bihar Prohibition and Excise (Modification) Invoice, 2022, the regulation says individuals caught consuming liquor will now should pay a nice earlier than a Justice of the Peace and gained’t be despatched to jail.

      • The modification continues to be awaiting implementation after the Patna Excessive Courtroom voiced its reservations about judicial energy being vested in officers designated as particular government magistrates in districts and subdivisions.

  • Points:

    • Consequently, the previous system of arrest continues — information from the excise division exhibits that in August 2022 alone, 30,000 individuals had been arrested for violating liquor legal guidelines.
    • The liquor prohibition coverage has been the topic of many controversies — chief amongst them is the allegation that the regulation has choked up the state’s judicial processes.
    • Liquor regulation violations have led to overcrowding of jails in Bihar. There are round 1.5 lakh individuals in Bihar jails for the violations.

      • Most of them belong to the decrease and downtrodden courses of society who can’t bribe their manner out of jail.

Supply: TH

Why in Information?

In response to the Human Improvement Report 2021-22, India’s rank on the Human Improvement Index (HDI) has slipped from 130 in 2020 to 132 in 2022, according to a worldwide fall in HDI scores within the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic.

What’s Human Improvement Report?

  • About:

    • Human Improvement Studies (HDRs) have been launched since 1990 and have explored totally different themes by means of the human growth method.
    • It is printed by the Human Improvement Report Workplace for the United Nations Improvement Programme (UNDP).

  • Aim: The purpose is to contribute towards the enlargement of alternatives, selection and freedom.
  • Theme: The theme for Human Improvement Report 2021-22 is Unsure Occasions, Unsettled Lives: Shaping our Future in a World in Transformation.

What’s the Human Improvement Index?

  • HDI is a composite index that measures common achievement in human growth making an allowance for 4 indicators:

    • Life expectancy at start (Sustainable Improvement Aim 3),
    • Anticipated years of education (Sustainable Improvement Aim 4.3),
    • Imply years of education (Sustainable Improvement Aim 4.4),
    • Gross nationwide earnings (GNI) (Sustainable Improvement Aim 8.5).

What are the Key Highlights of the Report?

  • World:

    • Ninety p.c of nations have registered a discount of their Human Improvement Index worth in 2020 or 2021, reversing a lot of the progress towards the Sustainable Improvement Targets.
    • Drop in Life Expectancy: A big contributor to the Human Improvement Index’s current decline is a worldwide drop in life expectancy, down from 72.8 years in 2019 to 71.4 years in 2021.

  • Indian Perspective:

    • Human Improvement Index: India’s HDI worth stood at 0.633 in 2021, which was decrease than the world common of 0.732. In 2020, too, India recorded a decline in its HDI worth (0.642) compared to the pre-Covid stage of 2019 (0.645).
    • Life expectancy: In 2021, India’s life expectancy at start was recorded at 67.2 years.
    • Education: Anticipated years of education at 11.9 years; imply years of education at 6.7 years;
    • Gross Nationwide Revenue: The gross nationwide earnings per capita stood at USD 6,590.
    • Gender Inequality Index: India has been ranked 122 on the Gender Inequality Index.

  • Different insights:

    • People usually are not ready for local weather change: It said that people had been unprepared for a world with local weather crises like fires and storms and different planetary-level adjustments caused because of the Anthropocene lately.
    • Inhabitants Decline of Bugs: With out an abundance of insect pollinators, people face the mind-boggling problem of rising meals and different agricultural merchandise at scale.

      • As bugs are necessary due to their range, ecological function and affect on agriculture, human well being and pure sources.
      • They create the organic basis for all terrestrial ecosystems, additional, they cycle vitamins, pollinate vegetation, disperse seeds, keep soil construction and fertility, management populations of different organisms and supply a significant meals supply for different taxa.

    • Microplastic menace: Plastics at the moment are in every single place, in country-sized rubbish patches within the ocean, in protected forests and distant mountaintops and in individuals’s lungs and blood.

UPSC Civil Providers Examination Earlier Yr Query (PYQ)


Q. The Multi-dimensional Poverty Index developed by Oxford Poverty and Human Improvement Initiative with UNDP help covers which of the next? (2012)

  1. Deprivation of schooling, well being, belongings and companies at family stage
  2. Buying energy parity at nationwide stage
  3. Extent of finances deficit and GDP progress charge at nationwide stage

Choose the proper reply utilizing the codes given under:

(a) 1 solely
(b) 2 and three solely
(c) 1 and three solely
(d) 1, 2 and three

Ans: (a)


  • The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) displays the deprivations {that a} poor particular person faces concurrently with respect to schooling, well being and dwelling requirements, as mirrored within the following desk. Therefore, assertion 1 is appropriate.

  • Due to this fact, possibility (a) is the proper reply.


Q. Regardless of Constant expertise of excessive progress, India nonetheless goes with the bottom indicators of human growth. Look at the problems that make balanced and inclusive growth elusive. (2016)

Supply: IE

Why in Information?

Not too long ago, India performed six profitable flight-tests of the Fast Response Floor to Air Missile (QRSAM) system from Built-in Take a look at Vary (ITR) Chandipur off the Odisha coast.

What’s QRSAM?

  • About:

    • QRSAM is a canister-based system, which implies that it’s saved and operated from specifically designed compartments.

      • Within the canister, the inside surroundings is managed, thus together with making its transport and storage simpler, the shelf lifetime of weapons additionally improves considerably.

    • The system is able to detecting and monitoring targets on the transfer and fascinating targets with brief halts.

  • Vary and mobility:

    • It’s a short-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, primarily designed and developed by DRDO to supply a protecting protect to shifting armoured columns of the Military from enemy aerial assaults.
    • The complete weapon system has been configured on a cellular and manoeuvrable platform and is able to offering air defence on the transfer.
    • It has been designed for induction into the Military and has a variety of 25 to 30 km.

  • Functioning:

    • The QRSAM weapon ensemble, which features on the transfer, consists of a totally automated command and management system.

      • It additionally consists of two radars – Energetic Array Battery Surveillance Radar and Energetic Array Battery Multifunction Radar – with one launcher.

    • Each radars have 360-degree protection with “search on transfer” and “observe on transfer” capabilities.
    • The system is compact, makes use of a single stage stable propelled missile and has a mid-course inertial navigation system with two-way information hyperlink and terminal energetic seeker developed indigenously by DRDO.

UPSC Civil Providers Examination Earlier Yr Query (PYQ)

Q. What’s “Terminal Excessive Altitude Space Protection (THAAD)”, typically seen within the information? (2018)

(a) An Israeli radar system
(b) India’s indigenous anti-missile programme
(c) An American anti-missile system
(d) A defence collaboration between Japan and South Korea.

Ans: (c)


  • Terminal Excessive Altitude Space Defence (THAAD) is an American anti-missile system designed to intercept and destroy brief and medium-range ballistic missiles throughout their “terminal” section of flight when they’re falling in direction of the goal.
  • They’ve the power to intercept missile inside and outdoors the ambiance.
  • It’s interoperable with different ballistic missile defence methods and is very cellular and deployable worldwide.
  • Due to this fact, possibility (c) is the proper reply

Q. With regards to Agni-IV Missile, which of the next statements is/are appropriate? (2014)

  1. It’s a surface-to-surface missile.
  2. It’s fuelled by liquid propellant solely.
  3. It could actually ship one-tonne nuclear warheads about 7500 km away.

Choose the proper reply utilizing the code given under:

(a) 1 solely
(b) 2 and three solely
(c) 1 and three solely
(d) 1, 2 and three

Ans: (a)

  • Agni-IV is a nuclear-capable long-range ballistic missile of India, with a strike vary of 4,000 km.
  • The indigenously developed Agni-IV is a two-stage surface-to-surface missile. It’s 20 metres lengthy with a weight of 17 tonnes. Therefore, assertion 1 is appropriate.
  • It’s a two stage stable fuelled system that may carry a one-tonne nuclear warhead over a distance of 4,000 kilometres. Therefore, statements 2 and three usually are not appropriate.
  • Due to this fact, possibility (a) is the proper reply.

Supply: TH

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